Selasa, 23 Oktober 2012

AGRICULTURE AND ECONOMY OF INDONESIA


Introduction to Agriculture in Indonesia
Indonesia is a country with a very good agricultural condition. With such a fertile land, it is possible for us to plant and grow almost all kinds of fruits, vegetables, and other plants. That’s why Indonesia is well known as an agrarian nation, a country that highly depends on agriculture as its primary means for support and sustenance. The society in Indonesia also acknowledges other means of livelihood and work habits, but stresses the importance of agriculture and farming.
            As an agrarian nation, the agriculture sector plays an important role in ensuring the life of the nation’s society, and even the nation itself. Most of the nation’s income comes from this sector. Also, there are so many farmers in Indonesia. To make it clearer, agriculture sector in Indonesia has a role in:
·       - providing job opportunity for the majority of labor force
·       - producing foods for nation
·       - raw material producer for industrial sector
·        -strengthening food security and rural development
Agriculture sector plays even more important role when Indonesia is in the middle of a crisis. Soekarno stated that agriculture is the life and death of Indonesia.
            One of the most valuable agriculture commodity in Indonesia is rice. Most of land in Indonesia is covered by rice fields. If we go to rural areas in this nation, we can easily find rice fields, with farmers working on the fields. The total area of rice field in Indonesia is about 7,8 hectares, including irrigated, rain fed, tidal, and deep water. Rice production stock dominantly supported by irrigated rice field (60,3%) and rain fed rice field (26,5%) (2006). Based on the statistics, 41% of rice field are located in Java and the other 59% are located outside Java (2006). Beside rice, there are also other valuables commodities such as corn, coconut, peanut, green bean, cinnamon, etc.

The Strength and Weakness

            Looking at the land condition in Indonesia, it is totally a great opportunity to maximize its income from agriculture sector. With good treatment and development, there are no doubts that Indonesia will be able to maximize its agriculture sector at the highest level. Indonesia has around 47,6 million hectares in cultivated surface area and 4,5 million hectares in irrigated surface area. The tropical climate that Indonesia has ensures crops to be grown all year round. And also, it is possible to grow almost all kinds of crops in Indonesia.
There have been so many contributions given by agriculture sector for this nation. For example, Indonesia achieved self-sufficiency in rice production by the mid-1980s - that was during the governance of the 2nd President of Indonesia, Soeharto. He focused the nation’s development to agriculture sector. He’s the one who made the ‘food revolution’ in Indonesia, so that during his era Indonesia was able to achieve self-sufficiency in rice production. Because of this achievement, Soeharto was able to increase the life standard of the society and save Indonesia from economical crisis. Because of the big effort, traditionally a rice importing nation, Indonesia may export as many as 2 million tons of rice in 2009, the most in at least 50 years. Only a year removed from importing 800,000 tons of rice in order to meet consumption, Indonesia is on the pace to have the large surplus ever.
            Another contributor beside rice is coconut. Coconut is one of many commodities which is a great contributor for the nation’s income that can be relied on. We can see this from the export rate of coconut which reaches the number of US$11,61 billion, increased 17,75% or US$2,5 million from last year’s rate. Indonesia is one of the biggest coconut-producing countries in the world. Indonesia has a total coconut area of 8.04 million hectares with 19,76 million tons production of CPO (crude palm oil) in 2010.
           

From the facts listed above, we can conclude that agriculture sector is a great source of income for Indonesia. Agriculture sector is the third biggest source of income for Indonesia, which accounts 16.5% of Indonesia’s income/GDP (2010). The largest account is from industry sector (46.4%) followed by services (37.1%). However, since 2010, the agriculture sector has employed more people (38.3% of labor force) than industry sector (12.8% of labor force). And agriculture, however, had been the country’s largest employer for centuries. So, there is a big chance for the government to improve this sector to get more income.
Still, there are also some weaknesses regarding to the agriculture sector in Indonesia. The weaknesses are much more focused to the development itself.  The development of agriculture sector in the past had some weaknesses such as only focused on farming, low support of macro policies, and centralistic approach. Because of that, the agriculture business (especially farming) nowadays are dominated by businesses with:
  • low scale 
  •  low-to-limited capital 
  •  simple technology
  •   highly influenced by season
  • local market area
  • generally use family workers
  • conversion from farming land to non-farming land etc.
Not only that, there are also other problems. In Indonesia, it’s a fact that the government don’t care too much about farmers. We can see it from these things:
  • abandoned farm and village infrastructures
  • government don’t care about urbanization
  • low life standard in village
  •   increased price of fertilizer, but decreased selling price for commodities
  •   the importing policy of agriculture products, without making any efforts to increase the amount and quality of the products
  • farmers have low knowledge about farming technologies  and many other problems that can’t be listed all

Looking at this situation, there are a lot things to do, to ‘heal’ the agriculture sector in Indonesia. Government should have given more care/treatments for agriculture workers, especially farmers. Government should look at Vietnam and Thailand. The government on both countries really takes serious actions in order to improve their agriculture sector. They make policies that support the local farmers. Because of that, both countries are now two of biggest rice exporters in the world. While Indonesia, in the other hand, becomes the biggest importer of rice in the world (14% of rice traded in world market), even though Indonesia is the third biggest producer of rice in the world (54 million metric tons, 2005).
Also, the government should make policies that really support farmers and other agriculture sector workers, such as lowering the amount of agriculture product imports, intensifying agriculture sector improvements and developments, subsidizing the price of fertilizers, give counseling and training for farmers and other agriculture sector workers, give incentives to boost productivity of farmers, etc. The government itself should interact actively and often with farmers to stimulate the paradigm and mentality if farmers to become ‘superior farmers’.
If the government is not reliable anymore, farmers should go on their own. They better do self-government actions to free themselves from government dependency, whatever the action is. For that, they need help from the experts, whether they are food and plant experts, marketing experts, management experts, or other related experts, that want to work voluntarily to save this country, whether they work individually or in an organization, whether they are from Indonesia or other countries. We cannot let this country destroyed because a handful of people in the government.


Sources

Nama   :           Bona Doni Gideon
NPM   :           120110120087
Facebook Link   :           http://www.facebook.com/ZakNS
Twitter Link        :           https://twitter.com/zakharia1995
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20 komentar:

Bona Doni Gideon mengatakan...

Guys, I want to make a correction here:

The total area of rice field in Indonesia is 7,8 million hectares, not 7,8 hectares.
Sorry for the mistake.

Bona Doni Gideon

Denny Pradana mengatakan...

I think you can do better than this...
Maybe you can tell us about the good prospect of Indoneian agriculture for next 10 years maybe.
For me, you should put more opinions than facts, because this is an essay.

Bona Doni Gideon mengatakan...

Thanks for the feedback :D

I'll put more opinions on my next essays.

Actually, the teacher has give some limitations for the essay, so can't put more things into the essay

Bona Doni Gideon

Tom Mantab mengatakan...

wow,your essay is pretty good,I like it.
But I think you should give your opinion more, maybe like how to cover the weakness if we focus on agriculture and other else..
Keep it up Bona!I know you can do it better!!

Bona Doni Gideon mengatakan...

@Tom Mantab

Thanks for the feedback, at least now I know that an essay should contain opinions rather than facts.

I really appreciate your comment.

Benny Pratama mengatakan...

So, brother (if I can say), here's my point of view, and let me get it straight.
Maybe before you give some critics for government, you should tell the people some good steps that government has taken to overcome our agricultural problem first, just to make your essay looks as an objective essay.

Second. For me, you need more details in your essay. Not only detailed facts about Indonesian agriculture, but also in your opinion. I suggest, find more detailed and latest facts about it, and think deeper, expand your mind, to produce some great opinion. Try to look at the problem in different point of view, like the connection between it and social aspect (social-economy), and so on, for example.

Don't forget to give some appropriate, realistic, and again, detailed solutions for the problems, not only for government and the farmers, but also for our society.

Then you're ready to get A now !!
:D

Bona Doni Gideon mengatakan...

@Benny Pratama
Thanks, for your feedback brother :D

Well, yeah you're right. It seems that I'm a bit 'limiting myself' in this essay, because there are also some limitations given from the teacher.

I hope someday I can make a better essay, at least now I know that an essay should contain more opinions tham facts :D

Bona Doni Gideon

fajar mengatakan...

For me, ur article is okay.. But for the weakness part, can u add the impact of that weakness and it will better if u can add an empiric data for the impact of that weakness.. That's all..

Kevin Ang mengatakan...

I'll get to the point.



Well, actually I don't think your opinions are insufficient or what. But you need to extend the idea of the stated opinion (e.g giving more examples, explain what would be the result of the solution you provided)


In this case, you need to elaborate more, so that people can have a better understanding of your opinion. Simply put, your opinion isn't deep enough. Personally, I think you didn't provide sufficient information, such as reasons of why you state that kind of opinion or maybe how's the solution given will work out with the current problem?


At least, that's what I think about your essay. It's a great essay actually. And, seriously dude, I can comment anything I want but I can't do the same job properly, you know? I might not produce an essay that is as decent as yours. Well anyway, keep giving your best shot!

Manuella mengatakan...

Couldn't agree more. The government should add more attention to the agricultural sector because this country have good agricultural condition (as you mention on your essay), and what this country need to improve first is the education of the farmers. If the farmers are well-educated, they will be able to produce more effectively. We need educated people who are dedicated to this sector to train those farmers.

Alfindy Agyputri mengatakan...

What a great essay! I like the way you present your opinions and how you put the facts and your opinions all together. It's well-written. But I think your essay sounds too subjective, especially in the last part. You put a lot of critics to the government. It's like you're judging them. It is true that they causes some problems, but I believe there are positive things that they've done as well. You can put some problems in the past and some efforts that government put. Well, that's all from me. I'm not an expert on this, so I'm not even sure with my own comment, but I hope it's useful. Keep on trying, I know you can! Good luck (:

Alfindy Agyputri mengatakan...

Oh yeah, one more thing, maybe you can use another title that sounds more interesting (:

Anonim mengatakan...

Its a great essay.
But maybe you can also write what is the positive sides that the government has done and what is the impact of the action. Is there any improvement or not and not only criticized the government by saying they didn't take care of it. Goodluck! :D

Lady Elizabeth Febrina mengatakan...

This is a good essay. my opinion is almost the same as the opinions of your friends.
My opinion: you have to be more multiply your opinion, add the facts that you have and don't focus too much on government mistakes.
The rest I really like your essay.
Good Luck Don :)

ifhrans karo mengatakan...

Hi Bona Doni,

nice to read your article, such a good one I have ever read, four thumbs for ya

first, i need to give you a correction, epecially in grammatical writing.

if i'm not mistaken, you have posted this statement 'there are no doubts .......'
well actually, this isn't wrong, but much better read if it sounds like 'there's no any doubt .....'

just that, over all, you are seemingly a good article writer.

oh ya, it also contributes you a lot of points if you relates the relevancy of your case with this era, and how it boosts industrial sector coz ya know they both are on one railway actually.

at last, I rate you for 5 stars of 5 stars for this lovely article. Keep writing and posting dude !

Jessy mengatakan...

Hi Bona,
I don't have to say much about the structure as it's already good (introduction, body, and conclusion)
actually, in an essay, the writer's analysis and argument are very important. the analysis is supported by accurate and credible information. In your essay, there're a lot of information and facts but lack of your own opinions. the readers want to know more about your views toward this matter.
About "In Indonesia, it’s a fact that the government don’t care too much about farmers" "If the government is not reliable anymore, ... "
I think you must include evidence (you only put some points) that what you have written is a truth.
lastly, I must say that your essay is good enough since this is your first time to be an English essay writer :)

Anonim mengatakan...

I think your essay is quite good.. My comments are similar with most of your friends comments.. Try to develop more in the weakness and solution part.. Don't just mention the weaknesses but try to explain a little bit more so that the reader won't have difficulties to understand your point.. As for the solution part, you only focused in the government fault and abandoning other weaknesses which also need to be covered.. Thank you and God bless..

pris mengatakan...

I like the conclusion part, eventhough its raught and hard but writer sounds optimistic and bold. and I know that he must have write from his heart. keep it up, indonesian proud of you gideon! :)

Anonim mengatakan...

I like the conclusion part, eventhough its raught and hard but writer sounds optimistic and bold. and I know that he must have write from his heart. keep it up, indonesian proud of you gideon! :)

Ellice Tanfilia mengatakan...

I think you should write more opinions like what the others said.
Moreover your opinions about the agriculture and economy state at this time, maybe you can write your opinions by compare it between past and current situation. Because in ur essay you only write about agriculture and economy of Indonesia in the past based by facts that you got.
Overall, it's a good essay bon :)

GIVE me JESUS!!!!